A quick reprint, courtesy of www.philosophybasics.com. Logical thinking and the removal of emotions to understand information can be a powerful tool. The explanation below opens the door to begin understanding so many other things – interactions, other people, and ourselves in a different way – using logic.  Prepare to nerd out. I’ll have more on this later as it applies to real life situations.

Here it is (all emphasis is the author’s):

Logic (from the Greek “logos“, which has a variety of meanings including word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason or principle) is the study of reasoning, or the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. It attempts to distinguish good reasoning from bad reasoning.

Aristotle defined logic as “new and necessary reasoning“, “new” because it allows us to learn what we do not know, and “necessary” because its conclusions are inescapable. It asks questions like “What is correct reasoning?”, “What distinguishes a good argument from a bad one?”, “How can we detect a fallacy in reasoning?”

Logic investigates and classifies the structure of statements and arguments, both through the study of formal systems of inference and through the study of arguments in natural language. It deals only with propositions (declarative sentences, used to make an assertion, as opposed to questions, commands or sentences expressing wishes) that are capable of being true and false. It is not concerned with the psychological processes connected with thought, or with emotions, images and the like. It covers core topics such as the study of fallacies and paradoxes, as well as specialized analysis of reasoning using probability and arguments involving causality and argumentation theory.

Logical systems should have three things: consistency (which means that none of the theorems of the system contradict one another); soundness (which means that the system’s rules of proof will never allow a false inference from a true premise); and completeness (which means that there are no true sentences in the system that cannot, at least in principle, be proved in the system).


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